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Gut Bacteria the Key to Weight Loss?

Not all calories are created equal, as a new study highlights how gut bacteria can alter...
Not all calories are created equal, as a new study highlights how gut bacteria can alter how effectively our bodies metabolize carbohydrates

A new study from researchers at the Mayo Clinic may shed some light on why certain people can lose more weight than others despite adhering to the same regime of exercise and caloric restriction. Alongside a myriad of other recent medical discoveries, the secret may lie in the unique make-up of our gut bacteria. read more

Not Enough of the Best & Brightest

from The Washington Free Beacon:

Three-Quarters of Young Americans Don’t Qualify for Military Service

Nearly three-quarters of young Americans are ineligible to serve in the United States military due to obesity, criminal record, or lack of education, according to a new report by the Heritage Foundation.

The contracted pool of Americans aged 17 to 24 who are fit to enlist in the armed services poses an “alarming” threat to national security and risks derailing the Trump administration’s path to rebuilding a depleted military, the report found, citing Pentagon data.

The Pentagon estimates that 24 million of the 34 million Americans between 17 and 24 years old, or 71 percent, are unable to serve. read more

Bacteria Fight Obesity

Gut microbes may be another way to tackle  obesity, new research suggests.

Could a transplant of gut bacteria be the key to tackling obesity?

 

Scientists found that by altering the levels  of gastric bugs in mice, they were able to induce rapid and significant weight  loss.

The change occurred after bacteria from obese  mice that had undergone gastric bypass surgery were transplanted into ordinary  animals.

Surgery had the effect of altering the  make-up of the gut flora, introducing a different balance which promoted  slimming.

Surgery to transplant different bacteria into the gut - altering the make-up of the gut flora - promoted slimming, say researchers
Surgery to transplant different bacteria into the gut –  altering the make-up of the gut flora – promoted slimming, say researchers

When this new mix of microbes was transferred  to non-obese mice, the weight loss benefits were transferred too.

The U.S. research shows that gastric bypasses  do more than prevent food being digested. Much of their impact is due to altered  ecology in the gut.

‘It may not be that we will have a magic pill  that will work for everyone who’s slightly overweight,’ said study leader Dr  Peter Turnbaugh, from Harvard University, Boston.

‘But if we can, at a minimum, provide some  alternative to gastric bypass surgery that produces similar effects, it would be  a major advance.’

Gastric bypasses work by rearranging the gut  so that it accommodates less food.

The research showed that after surgery  different kinds of microbe began to take over. In particular, the gut became  dominated by verrucomicrobia and gammaproteobacteria. In contrast levels of the  Firmicutes family of bugs fell.

It took less than a week for the rebalancing  to occur, and the effect continued for months afterwards.

The new population of bugs appeared to drive  weight loss, and continued to do so when transferred to a non-obese group of  mice that had not undergone a gastric bypass.

An altered balance of microbes in the gut can lead to weight loss
An altered balance of microbes in the gut can lead to  weight loss

‘Simply by colonizing mice with the altered  microbial community, the mice were able to maintain a lower body fat and lose  weight – about 20 per cent as much as they would if they underwent surgery,’  said Dr Turnbaugh.

He suspected an even more dramatic result  would have been seen if the mice receiving the bugs had been fattened up  beforehand.

How particular populations of microbes induce  weight loss remains unclear.

The answer may be linked to waste products  the bugs excrete, according to the research published in the journal Science  Translational Medicine.

Along with the altered microbes, the  scientists found changes in the concentration of certain short-chain fatty  acids. Previous studies have suggested the molecules may trigger signals that  cause the body to speed up metabolism, or store fewer calories as  fat.

‘A major gap in our knowledge is the  underlying mechanism linking microbes to weight loss,’ said Dr Turnbaugh. ‘There  were certain microbes that we found at higher abundance after surgery, so we  think those are good targets for beginning to understand what is taking  place.’

Co-author Dr Lee Kaplan, from Massachusetts  General Hospital in Boston, said: ‘We need to learn a good deal more about the  mechanisms by which a microbial population changed by gastric bypass exert its  effects, and then we need to learn if we can produce these effects – either the  microbial changes or the associated metabolic changes – without  surgery.

‘The ability to achieve even some of these  effects without surgery would give us an entirely new way to treat the critical  problem of obesity, one that could help patients unable or unwilling to have

Attribution: Anna Hodgekiss, Mail Online

Antibiotics Cause Obesity

I don’t know if I buy this but it’s an interesting tidbit to consider. I personally, am more concerned with the overuse of antibiotics leading the way to anitbiotic resistant super-bugs.

Antibiotics Can Make Kids Fat

by:

Researchers are exploring a new culprit in the ever-growing childhood obesity epidemic: rampant use of antibiotic drugs to treat minor childhood illness.

For decades, farmers have been doping commercial livestock with antibiotics because the drugs increase, by about 15 percent, the weight of cattle, pigs and chickens.

A new study from the International Journal of Obesity suggests that treating infants with antibiotics during the first several months of their lives could have the same fattening effects. Babies that were given antibiotics within the first six months of life were more likely to be overweight as toddlers than those not exposed to the drugs. The study couldn’t prove beyond the shadow of doubt, however, that antibiotics were the only cause of weight gain.

A similar study examined the medical records of children born in the U.K. in the early 1990s and also found that infants given antibiotics within the first six months of life were more likely to be overweight or obese as toddlers when compared to babies not exposed to the drugs.

Other studies on the effects of antibiotics on the gut microbes of lab mice might explain the reason behind the weight gain. Researchers found that in the mice, antibiotics changed the makeup of gut bacteria that are instrumental in helping the body break down food and store proper amounts of fat.